the null and alternative hypothesis

The null and alternative hypotheses are given
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Psychology as a Science | AQA B Psychology

In this evaluation we used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral (ODR) measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools. The Messick approach provided a rubric for testing the fit of our theory of use of ODR measures with empirical data on reported and actual use. It also facilitated our demonstration of Messick's principle that validation is both a developmental and an ongoing collaborative process among developers of educational and psychological measures, researchers interested in theories underlying such measures, and educators who use these measures in professional practice. We used a single-group, nonexperimental evaluation design to survey users of ODR measures from the standardized School Wide Information System in 22 elementary and 10 middle schools; respondents included school staff involved exclusively with data entry and staff actively involved in data-based decision making. Results were highly consistent across 2 independent data sources—electronic database records of actual access of summaries of ODR measures and self-report survey responses regarding frequencies and types of uses of ODR measures for decision making. Results indicated that ODR measures are regularly used for a variety of types of data-based decision making and are regarded as both efficient and effective for those purposes. We discuss implications of our SWIS ODR validity evaluation results within the context of the Messick framework.

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Definitions & Varieties of Science

The past decade has given rise to a resurgence of interest in the investigation of antecedent events that "set the stage" for the occurrence of problem behaviors and, correspondingly, the role of these antecedents in developing preventative interventions. A growing literature supports the impact of teacher interactions and classroom structure on the overall classroom environment, specifically student behavior. Due to the complexity of natural settings, current protocols for assessing these setting factors for effective development of preventative strategies present limitations in external validity. The current investigation piloted a structural assessment tool (Setting Factors Assessment Tool-SFAT) designed to measure varying types of, as well as concurrent, classroom setting factors in a classroom context. The SFAT was employed to address the problem behaviors of a student with emotional/ behavioral disorders whose primary placement was in a general education second-grade classroom. The results of a traditional school-based functional assessment (descriptive assessment), an analog-based structural analysis, and the SFAT were compared. SFAT assessment results were provided to the teacher in the form of environmental and instructional recommendations. Results indicated that classroom-based environmental and instructional modifications were successful in reducing the student's problem behavior. Further, two-month follow-up data indicated maintenance of the original reductions. Implications for a school-based structural assessment protocol as well as directions for future research are discussed.

Research Methods and Statistics Flashcards | Quizlet
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The role of archival data in planning intervention priorities is examined and efficacy research focusing on the three types of positive behavioral support (PBS) is evaluated: schoolwide (universal), specific setting, and individual student levels. Overall, findings were positive across all types of PBS, validating implementation of these research-based practices.

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IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory - …

Newcomer, L. L., & Lewis, T. J. (2004). Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(3), 168-181

This study investigated (a) the efficacy of using descriptive and experimental assessment methodologies to generate hypotheses regarding the function of problem behavior and (b) the efficiency and efficacy of function-based interventions compared to traditional intervention approaches that focus on the topography of behavior. Functional assessments were conducted with three elementary school students identified as at risk for failure due to problem behavior. Agreement among indirect measures, direct observation, and experimental manipulation of environmental variables supports the value of using convergent data from indirect assessment methods to develop valid hypotheses. In addition, behavioral interventions based on functional assessment were found to be more effective than alternative intervention approaches across all three case studies. Implications, study limitations, and future research directions are discussed.