Where there was one cell there are two, then four, then eight,..

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Drag-and-Drop Protein Synthesis: Quiz - zeroBio

The majority of protein is digested, and the amino acids not used for gut fuel are metabolized in the intestinal mucosal cells and transported by the portal vein to the liver for protein synthesis or gluconeogenesis.12 In the liver, nonessential amino acids are largely deaminated, and the amino group (nitrogen) removed is converted into urea for excretion in the urine.13 It has been shown that in subjects without and with mild type 2 diabetes, ~50–70% of a 50-g protein meal is accounted for over an 8-hour period by deamination in the liver and intestine and synthesis to urea.14 It has been assumed that the remaining carbon skeletons from the nonessential amino acids are available for glucose synthesis, which would then enter into the general circulation.

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Unit 08: DNA Learning Center 3D Animation Library - …

The threshold for abnormal nitrogen synthesis and breakdown is reported to be at a fasting glycemia between 6 and 7 mmol/l (108–125 mg/dl).80 Therefore, with moderate energy restriction there is need for a generous dietary protein intake (~1 g/kg body weight).

Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori in vitro by various berry extracts, with enhanced susceptibility to clarithromycin.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2004.
Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University Health Sciences Center, Omaha, NE
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various berry extracts, with and without clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori. Resistance to clarithromycin by H. pylori has been reported, leading to interest in alternatives/adjuncts to therapy with clarithromycin. H. pylori American type culture collection (ATCC) strain 49503 was grown, cell suspensions were made in PBS and diluted 10-fold. One hundred microL of the suspension was then incubated for 18 h with extracts of raspberry, strawberry, cranberry, elderberry, blueberry, bilberry, and OptiBerry, a blend of the six berries, at 0.25-1% concentrations. Serially diluted cell suspensions were exposed for 1 h to clarithromycin at 15 microg/ml. Ten microl of bacterial samples from the 10(-7) dilution tube were plated and incubated for 18 h and the number of colonies were counted. Growth of H. pylori was confirmed by the CLO test. All berry extracts significantl inhibited H. pylori, compared with controls, and also increased susceptibility of H. pylori to clarithromycin, with OptiBerry demonstrating maximal effects.

The stomach bug H. pylori is responsible for most ulcers, but it can usually be eradicated with medication. However, many people who undergo this treatment put on weight -- and now Japanese scientist think they know why. Elimination of H. pylori infection leads to a significant increase in levels of the powerful appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin in the tissues of the stomach where it is produced, the researchers report in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

Widely used heartburn and ulcer drugs such as Nexium, Pepcid and Prilosec can make people more susceptible to pneumonia, probably because they reduce germ-killing stomach acid, Dutch researchers found in a study of more than 300,000 patients. The highest risks occurred with more powerful acid-fighting drugs called proton pump inhibitors, which are sold in the United States under such brand names as Nexium, Prevacid and Prilosec. Over nearly three years, users of these drugs faced almost double the risk of developing pneumonia compared with former users. Users of another class of acid-fighting drugs that includes cimetidine and famotidine — sold in the United States as Tagamet and Pepcid — also faced an elevated risk.

Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 3, 737-741, September 2004
Evidence suggests that ingesting lactic acid bacteria exerts a suppressive effect on Helicobacter pylori -- a cause of stomach ulcer -- infection in both animals and humans. Supplementing with Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt (AB-yogurt) was shown to improve the rates of eradication of H. pylori in humans. We administered AB-yogurt to subjects with asymptomatic H. pylori to test whether the yogurt could inhibit H. pylori growth. Design: In an intervention study, 59 adult volunteers infected with H. pylori were given AB-yogurt (107 colony-forming units of both La5 and Bb12/mL) twice daily after a meal for 6 wk. Eleven subjects positive for H. pylori infection were treated with milk placebo as control subjects. H. pylori bacterial loads were determined with use of the 13C-urea breath test, which was performed before and 4 and 8 wk after the start of AB-yogurt supplementation. Results: Bb12 exerted an in vitro inhibitory effect against , whereas La5 did not show an effect. Administration of AB-yogurt decreased the urease activity of after 6 wk of therapy. Conclusion: Regular intake of yogurt containing Bb12 and La5 effectively suppressed infection in humans.

The healing effects of Centella extract - gotu kola - and asiaticoside on acetic acid induced gastric ulcers in rats.
Life Sci. 2004 Mar 19;74(18):2237-49.
In this study, the healing effects of gotu kola water extract and asiaticoside, an active constituent of gotu kola, on acetic acid induced gastric ulcers (kissing ulcers) in rats were examined. Gotu kola was prepared from Centella asiatica dry plant and the concentration of asiaticoside in gotu kola was quantitatively determined with the use of high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Different concentrations of gotu kola and asiaticoside were orally administered to rats with kissing ulcers. They were found to reduce the size of the ulcers at day 3 and 7 in a dose-dependent manner, with a concomitant attenuation of myeloperoxidase activity at the ulcer tissues. Epithelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis were on the other hand promoted. The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor, an important angiogenic factor, was also upregulated in the ulcer tissues in rats treated with gotu kola or asiaticoside. These results further suggest the potential use of gotu kola and its active ingredient as anti-gastric ulcers drugs.