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Now, there is a weak version of an answer to (1) on the part of LOTHand a strong version. On the weak version, LOTH may be untendentiouslyviewed as inevitably providing some of the resources ingiving the ultimate naturalistic theory in naturalizing the meaning ofatomic symbols. The basic idea is that whatever the ultimatenaturalistic theory turns out to be true about atomic expressions,computation as conceived by LOTH will be part of it. For instance, itmay be that, as with nomic covariation theories of meaning (Fodor1987, 1990a; Dretske 1981), the meaning of an atomic predicate mayconsist in its potential to get tokened in the presence of (or, incausal response to) something that instantiates the property thepredicate is said to express. A natural way of explicating thispotential may partly but ultimately rely on certain computationalprinciples the symbol may be subjected to within a LOT framework, orprinciples that in some sense govern the “behavior” of thesymbol. Insofar as computation is naturalistically understood in theway LOTH proposes, a complete answer to the first question about thesemantics of atomic symbols may plausibly involve an explicatoryappeal to computation within a system of symbols. This is the weakversion because it doesn't see LOTH as proposing a complete solutionto the first question (1) above, but only helping it.

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Now we need a way to the Hypothesis.

CORRECTION: This is far from true. A 2005 survey of scientists at top research universities found that more than 48% had a religious affiliation and that more than 75% believed that religions convey important truths.1 Some scientists are not religious, but many others subscribe to a specific faith and/or believe in higher powers. Science itself is a secular pursuit, but welcomes participants from all religious faiths. To learn more, visit our side trip .

Knowledge-based programming for everyone.

CORRECTION: The scientific community value individuals who have good intuition and think up creative explanations that turn out to be correct — but it values scientists who are able to think up creative ways to test a new idea (even if the test ends up contradicting the idea) and who spot the fatal flaw in a particular or test. In science, gathering evidence to determine the accuracy of an explanation is just as important as coming up with the explanation that winds up being supported by the evidence.

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Knowledge-based programming for everyone.

CORRECTION: It's easy to think that what scientists do in far-off laboratories and field stations has little relevance to your everyday life — after all, not many of us deal with super colliders or arctic plankton on a regular basis — but take another look around you. All the technologies, medical advances, and knowledge that improve our lives everyday are partly the result of scientific research. Furthermore, the choices you make when you vote in elections and support particular causes can influence the course of science. Science is deeply interwoven with our everyday lives. To see how society influences science, visit . To learn more about how scientific advances affect your life, visit

introduction|common mistakes [and how to avoid them]

According to RTM, propositional attitudes are relations to meaningfulmental representations whose causally sequenced tokenings constitute the process ofthinking. This much can, in principle, be granted by an intentionalrealist who might nevertheless reject LOTH. Indeed, there are plentyof theorists who accept RTM in some suitable form (and also happilyaccept (C) in many cases) but reject LOTH either by explicitlyrejecting (B) or simply by remaining neutral about it. Among some ofthe prominent philosophers who choose the former option are Searle (1984,1990, 1992), Stalnaker (1984), Lewis (1972), Barwise and Perry (1983).[] Some who want to remain neutral include Loar (1982a, 1982b), Dretske(1981), Armstrong (1980), and many contemporary functionalistsincluding some connectionists.[]

topic 6|incorporating your sources

CORRECTION: Some students find science class difficult — but this doesn't translate to not being good at science. First of all, school science can be very different from real science. The background knowledge that one learns in school is important for practicing scientists, but it is only part of the picture. Scientific research also involves creative problem-solving, communicating with others, logical reasoning, and many other skills that might or might not be a part of every science class. Second, science encompasses a remarkably broad set of activities. So maybe you don't care much for the periodic table — but that doesn't mean that you wouldn't be great at observing wild chimpanzee behavior, building computer models of tectonic plate movement, or giving talks about psychology experiments at scientific meetings. Often when a student claims to "not be good at science," it really just means that he or she hasn't yet found a part of science that clicks with his or her interests and talents.