A synthesis of carbon in international trade.
any liquid fuel obtained from coal, natural gas or biomass. The best known process is the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. An intermediate step in the production of synthetic fuel is often syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from coal which is sometimes directly used as an industrial fuel.
A synthesis of carbon in international trade - …
a process featuring reaction of methane with oxygen or steam to produce syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) followed by synthesis of liquid products (such as diesel and naphtha) from the syngas using Fischer-Tropsch catalytic synthesis. The process is similar to those used in coal-to-liquids or biomass-to-liquids.
the transformation of coal into liquid hydrocarbons. It can be achieved through either coal gasification into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), combined with Fischer-Tropsch or methanol-to-gasoline synthesis to produce liquid fuels, or through the less developed direct-coal liquefaction technologies in which coal is directly reacted with hydrogen.
Aligning Policies for a Low-Carbon Economy: A Synthesis …
We find that for embodied CO2emissions, estimates from independent studies are robust, and thatdifferences between individual studies are not a reflection of theuncertainty in consumption-based estimates, but rather these differencesresult from the use of different production-based emissions input dataand different definitions for allocating emissions to internationaltrade.
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In this paper we synthesise currentunderstanding in two parts: (1) embodied CO2 emissions fromthe production of goods and services produced in one country butconsumed in others, (2) physical carbon flows in fossil fuels,petroleum-derived products, harvested wood products, crops, andlivestock.
Aligning Policies for a Low-Carbon Economy: A Synthesis ..
We find the largest tradeflows of carbon in international trade in 2004 were fossil fuels (2673MtC, 37 % of global emissions), CO2 embodied in traded goodsand services (1661 MtC, 22 % of global emissions), crops (522 MtC, 31 %of total harvested crop carbon), petroleum-based products (183 MtC, 50 %of their total production), harvested wood products (149 MtC, 40 % oftotal roundwood extraction), and livestock products (28 MtC, 22 % oftotal livestock carbon).
International of - Poupe dinheiro aqui!
This volume brings together different strands of analysis carried out by OECD since 2009 on the use of export restrictions in the trade of raw materials.
Vol 8 Issue 1 (January/February 2017)
This publication analyses services trade policies and quantifies their impacts on imports and exports, the performance of manufacturing and services sectors, and how services trade restrictions affect firms engaged in international markets.
Consumption‐based carbon accounting: does it have a ..
Against the background of rising anti-globalisation sentiment, Making Trade Work for All argues that while there are good reasons for some people to be angry, trade is not the root of many problems, nor can it solve them on its own. The paper proposes that what is needed is an integrated approach across domestic, trade and international policies to make the whole system work better for more people.